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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 316-320

Role of capillary blood ketone assay in diagnosis and management of diabetic ketoacidosis in pediatric intensive care unit

Department of Pediatric Medicine, The Indus Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Muhammad Shahzad
Department of Pediatric Medicine, The Indus Hospital, Karachi
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/JPCC.JPCC_105_20

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Introduction: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a life-threatening metabolic emergency in children. The capillary beta-hydroxybutyrate (BOHB) is increasingly used in the diagnosis and management of DKA. This study's objective is to assess the clinical and statistical correlation of BOHB with standard acidosis markers such as pH and HCO3. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the electronic medical record of children aged 2 months to 16 years with DKA from January 2018 to January 2020 admitted in the pediatric intensive care unit of The Indus Hospital which is a tertiary care specialized center. All children received the treatment according to the standard protocol. Capillary blood BOHB was measured on admission, q 4–6 hourly, and blood glucose was also measured. All parameters were recorded on a structured sheet. Results: Among 1080 critically ill admissions, 26 patients (2.4%) were diagnosed as DKA. The mean age was 9.8 ± 3.8 years, and females were 54%. Half patients were newly diagnosed with Type 1-Insulin dependant diabetes mellitus (1DDM). Mild, moderate, and severe cases of DKA were 19%, 50%, and 31%, respectively. The median time to resolution of acidosis was 17 (10–39) h. At the time of resolution of acidosis, the correlation between capillary BOHB and blood pH (r = 0.11, P= 0.56), HCO3(r = 0.37, P = 0.86), AG (r = 0.37, P = 0.06), and base deficit (r = 0.04, P = 0.82) was noted. Hyperchloremia was present in 61.5% of cases. Five patients (19.2%) developed AKI that recovered. There was a strong clinical correlation of beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHOB) with standard acidosis markers of DKA management. Conclusion: Bedside capillary blood BOHB is a simple, inexpensive, point-of-care test that helps diagnose and treat DKA, especially in resource-limited settings, for avoiding unnecessary delays.

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