|Year : 2020 | Volume
| Issue : 4 | Page : 159-160
High-flow nasal cannula for acute viral bronchiolitis in children: Worth a high five
Utpal S Bhalala
Department of Pediatrics and Voelcker Clinical, Research Center, Baylor College of Medicine, The Children's Hospital of San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, USA
|Date of Submission||19-Apr-2020|
|Date of Acceptance||25-May-2020|
|Date of Web Publication||13-Jul-2020|
Dr. Utpal S Bhalala
315 N. San Saba St., Suite 1135, San Antonio, Texas 78207
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
|How to cite this article:|
Bhalala US. High-flow nasal cannula for acute viral bronchiolitis in children: Worth a high five. J Pediatr Crit Care 2020;7:159-60
|How to cite this URL:|
Bhalala US. High-flow nasal cannula for acute viral bronchiolitis in children: Worth a high five. J Pediatr Crit Care [serial online] 2020 [cited 2020 Aug 13];7:159-60. Available from: http://www.jpcc.org.in/text.asp?2020/7/4/159/289526
Acute respiratory failure is associated with approximately 30% of intensive care unit (ICU) admissions and 50% of ICU deaths. Approximately 60% of patients with acute respiratory failure require mechanical ventilation, which has been associated with various adverse events, including hospital mortality as high as 30%.,, Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) has gained a growing interest as a respiratory support in patients with acute respiratory failure. It obviates complications of intubation and invasive mechanical ventilation in a selected patient population. However, NIV is associated with issues such as eye and/or skin damage, interface intolerance, agitation, and challenges with enteral nutrition. These are the reasons, the medical community is exploring use of a high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) in different patient populations with different types of hypoxic and/or hypercapnic respiratory failure. In a recent review, HFNC was described to decrease the need for endotracheal intubation and was better tolerated in adults with acute respiratory failure. HFNC is rapidly gaining recognition as an alternative to standard oxygen therapy and NIV in critically ill children with acute bronchiolitis and pneumonia and following extubation in children at risk for reintubation. This technology was introduced in preterm infants and then children with hypoxic respiratory failure and has recently been expanded to adults with respiratory failure. HFNC has been shown to improve lung mechanics, change transpulmonary pressure, and therefore, reduce work of breathing., HFNC has been shown to deliver positive pressure and recruit alveoli based on the degree of flow.
Despite growing popularity of HFNC as a noninvasive positive pressure support in children with hypoxic respiratory failure, the evidence supporting its use in children with acute bronchiolitis, especially in comparison to other noninvasive respiratory support, is contradictory.,,,, More evidence is needed to understand the role of HFNC in acute viral bronchiolitis in children. In this particular edition of the Journal of Pediatric Critical Care, Sachdev et al. have described the results of a very well-conducted, randomized trial of HFNC versus noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation (NIPPV) to assess the failure of intervention and patient comfort during the management of acute viral bronchiolitis. This is the first randomized trial comparing two noninvasive ventilator strategies for efficacy and patient comfort during the management of acute bronchiolitis in the Indian subcontinent. It was a prospective, randomized study conducted in a 12-bed, multispecialty pediatric ICU (PICU) at a tertiary care hospital in Northern India. The study included young children between 1 month and 2 years of age, admitted to the PICU for the first episode of acute viral bronchiolitis with moderate-to-severe respiratory distress based on modified Wood's score. Using a computer-generated randomization algorithm, patients were randomized to receive either HFNC (maximum flow 2 L/kg/min) or NIPPV (nasal interface with a maximum PEEP of 8 cmH2O). The study defined different criteria as failure of intervention, including need for endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. The study also used comfort B-score in each group to assess patient comfort, which was one of the comparative outcome measures.
The study findings confirmed that HFNC and NIPPV are equally efficient in the management of moderate-to-severe bronchiolitis and that HFNC was more comfortable to patients as compared to NIPPV. Since minimizing agitation is important in children with acute bronchiolitis for minimizing turbulent airflow and work of breathing, HFNC is a potentially promising NIV strategy. The small sample size in this trial limits the study in generating strong evidence but certainly directs future, multicenter trials in the Indian subcontinent. With an exponential growth in pediatric critical care subspecialty and pediatric critical care training and research in India,, it is about time to leverage the collaborative efforts initiated by the IAP Intensive Care Chapter in India to conduct a multicenter trial to generate a robust evidence in relation to efficacy and comfort of HFNC as compared to NIPPV in children with acute bronchiolitis.
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